what was the first month in the ancient roman calendar?

Welcome to the fascinating world of ancient Rome, where the concept of time was meticulously woven into the fabric of their daily lives. To truly comprehend the essence of Roman culture, one must explore the intricacies of their calendar system. In this article, we delve into the first month of the ancient Roman calendar – Martius, known to us as March.

The Roman Calendar: An Overview

The ancient Roman calendar was a complex and evolving system, reflecting the Romans’ deep connection to nature and religious beliefs. It is believed to have originated around the 8th century BCE, with influences from the earlier Etruscan and Greek calendars. The Roman calendar was a lunisolar calendar, incorporating both lunar and solar elements to track time accurately.

Origins of the Roman Calendar

The earliest Roman calendar, known as the “Romulus calendar,” was attributed to Romulus, the legendary founder of Rome. It consisted of ten months, beginning with Martius, named after the god of war, Mars. The calendar underwent various changes over the centuries, with additional months being introduced to align it with the solar year.

The First Month: Martius (March)

In the ancient Roman calendar, Martius was the first month of the year. This marked the beginning of the agricultural season and was a time of hope and renewal for the Roman people. Martius was named after Mars, the god of war, reflecting the martial spirit of the Roman society.

Martius: A Month of Beginnings

As winter waned, Martius heralded the onset of spring. The Roman farmers eagerly prepared their lands for cultivation, sowing seeds in anticipation of a bountiful harvest. The month was also associated with the rebirth of nature, symbolizing the cycle of life.

Martius was a time of celebration and festivity, with various religious ceremonies and rituals held to honor Mars and seek his blessings for the Roman endeavors.

Roman New Year: Kalends of Martius

The first day of Martius, known as the “Kalends of Martius,” held immense significance in the Roman calendar. It marked the Roman New Year, and the day was celebrated with great zeal and enthusiasm. People exchanged New Year greetings and offered sacrifices to the gods for a prosperous year ahead.

The Ides of Martius

The Roman calendar was divided into three sections for each month: the Kalends, the Nones, and the Ides. The Ides of Martius fell on the 15th of the month and held special importance. It was a time for religious observances and offerings to the gods.

Religious Observances in Martius

Martius was dedicated to various Roman deities, with Mars taking center stage. Romans offered prayers and performed rituals to ensure the favor of the gods in their endeavors. The festivals of Mars involved grand processions, sacrifices, and gladiatorial games, showcasing the martial spirit of Rome.

Transitioning Weather: Martius and the Spring Equinox

Martius was closely associated with the vernal equinox, the time when day and night were of equal length. The arrival of spring brought a sense of hope and rejuvenation, and Romans celebrated this transition with joyous festivities.

Martius in Roman Mythology

In Roman mythology, the month of Martius was intertwined with stories of gods and heroes. Mars, the god of war, was a prominent figure, and his legends were revered by the Roman people. The myths associated with this month reflected the Roman values of courage, strength, and honor.

Changes in the Roman Calendar

Over the centuries, the Roman calendar underwent significant reforms to synchronize it with the solar year. Julius Caesar’s reforms in 46 BCE introduced the Julian calendar, which closely resembles the modern Gregorian calendar used today. This reform shifted the beginning of the year from Martius to January.

Legacy of Martius in Modern Times

Although Martius lost its status as the first month of the Roman calendar, its legacy continues to endure in modern society. The names of many months in various languages are derived from their Latin counterparts, including March.

Martius in Pop Culture

The spirit of Martius lives on in literature, films, and art. Writers and filmmakers have often drawn inspiration from ancient Rome, crafting tales of heroism, romance, and political intrigue. Martius, with its rich historical backdrop, provides an excellent setting for creative storytelling.


Martius, the first month in the ancient Roman calendar, serves as a window into the heart of Roman civilization. It embodies the Roman values of valor, reverence for the gods, and a deep connection with nature. Understanding Martius allows us to appreciate the legacy of this remarkable civilization and the lasting impact it has had on our modern world.

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